On 1 July 1972 Ted Brown walked by central London, stopped at Trafalgar Sq. for a kiss – and made historical past. He was on the occasion he had helped to organise, the UK’s first official Homosexual Satisfaction, by which greater than 2,000 individuals marched by the capital earlier than holding a mass kiss-in. Half a century later, his reminiscences of the day are euphoric. “It was wonderful,” he says. “I felt that we have been persevering with the legacy of the civil rights march.” That day he took images of buoyant butch lesbians and males in drag, crowding across the Trafalgar Sq. lions and fountains, draping them with banners and demanding liberation for all.
Organised by the UK department of the Homosexual Liberation Entrance (GLF), the London march adopted the Stonewall riots and first Satisfaction parade within the US. “The fundamental precept of the GLF was that one ought to come out to point out individuals who we really are,” says Brown. His work with the GLF, his efforts to enhance the remedy and illustration of LGBT individuals within the media, and his battle towards abusive policing make him a key determine in each British civil rights historical past and LGBT historical past. He was one of many few Black faces within the first Satisfaction march, and remembers it being composed of “largely younger individuals, largely white, inevitably, and largely hippies. It was solely 5 years after 1967, the Summer time of Love and the height of the hippy motion.”
This was not the GLF’s first march for homosexual rights. In 1970, Brown was at Highbury Fields, north London, to protest towards the arrest of Louis Eakes, the chairman of the Younger Liberals. Eakes had been arrested for cruising following a “fairly police” sting – the place cops posed as would-be intercourse companions. The next yr “our youth group marched towards the unequal age of consent legal guidelines”, says Brown. On the time some males have been paying a heavy worth for this legislation. “There was one man who was 21 and his boyfriend was 19, and he bought a 14-year sentence. And we managed to marketing campaign and get an enchantment and get it lowered to one thing like three years.”
This nascent homosexual liberation motion was intrinsically intertwined with the civil rights motion for racial justice, Brown says. Actually, the UK department of the GLF was shaped after the LSE college students Aubrey Walter and Bob Mellors met at a September 1970 convention in Philadelphia facilitated by the Black Panther Motion. And all of its demonstrations have been coalitions with different liberation teams. “One of many very first GLF marches,” says Brown, “was held in Notting Hill Gate, and run by individuals from the Mangrove” – the Caribbean restaurant on All Saints Highway, Notting Hill, which grew to become a hub of Black organising exercise, and was the topic of a current movie by the director Steve McQueen. The GLF was additionally joined by “individuals who had been concerned within the miners’ strikes and the [radical left group] Indignant Brigade, and had been closeted in these campaigns”, says Brown. Many of those teams marched alongside the GLF on the 1972 Satisfaction demonstration.
Brown, 71, was born in New York to Jamaican mother and father – his mom was a pharmacist and his father a storage attendant. By the point he was born his mother and father have been not collectively and their relationship was frighteningly turbulent. When Dorothy Walker was pregnant with Brown in 1949, his father was decided to maintain her away from Brown’s older sister, Jewel. At some point he invited Walker to the brand new dwelling he was sharing with an American girlfriend and gave her a cup of espresso, which he had laced with medication. He then referred to as the hospital, says Brown, telling them: “This lady is loopy.” Walker was detained in Pilgrim State hospital in Brentwood, New York, the place Brown was born on 1 February 1950. “Some individuals say that explains lots,” he laughs.
When she was launched, Brown and his mom moved to Harlem, the place he attended the Catholic Our Girl of Victory faculty – the one place the place he may meet up with Jewel. The divorce courts had given his mother and father shared custody of his sister, however his father would cease his mom from selecting her up at weekends. “I’ve met my sister since, just lately, and she or he defined how they’d really conceal her within the laundry of their dwelling and say she wasn’t there. They advised my sister that she wasn’t wished by our mom.”
Regardless of this parental animosity, Brown describes a cheerful life in Harlem, surrounded by different Black kids. “I keep in mind a variety of video games we used to play, I keep in mind loving the streets. We had a variety of basketball courts.” He was additionally conscious of the cultural legacy being constructed round him. “Black sports activities individuals have been having nice achievements, significantly individuals just like the Harlem Globetrotters. They, together with musical artists like Billie Vacation, Sarah Vaughan, Billy Eckstine, Ella Fitzgerald, have been attaining nice fame and constructive photographs for the Black neighborhood.”
But he was underneath no illusions that he may ever be secure in a world the place anti-Black violence was so seen. He was 5 when the 14-year-old Emmett Until was lynched in Mississippi, and remembers tv protection of the kid’s homicide. Despite the fact that he didn’t reside within the south, the younger Brown was terrified it may occur to him. “We have been being warned about white individuals within the streets, being advised by our mother and father to be very cautious. Even in Harlem, though it was a predominantly Black space, we nonetheless had incidents of white individuals coming into the world and behaving irresponsibly.”
A yr later Brown and his mom have been hit by the total drive of a extra authorized type of discrimination. His mom was concerned with the Nationwide Affiliation for the Development of Coloured Individuals – and was listed by the FBI as a “troublemaker”. On 23 April 1956, Walker, Brown and his youthful half-sister, Jackie, have been deported to Jamaica. The official documentation for her elimination states that Walker was “an individual of poor character, having been concerned in disturbances instigated by the NAACP”.
Walker’s companion on the time, Jackie’s father, was a white Jewish man and couldn’t relocate with them; he died earlier than the pair could possibly be reunited. Brown’s organic father was because of be deported too however, unbeknown to Brown and his household, he had married his American girlfriend. “Actually, as we have been going up the steps to the SS Arcadia, the ship that was going to take us to Jamaica, he whipped out his marriage certificates, which gave him American citizenship. And that saved him.” It was the final time Brown would see his father.
Whereas for his mom it should have been a traumatic expertise, Brown was much less troubled. “For me, the deportation simply appeared like an journey. I used to be happening a ship, to a rustic that I’d by no means seen earlier than.” And childhood in Jamaica was enjoyable. “I used to be working barefoot within the streets. A variety of Jamaica, though poor, was very lovely.” But even right here he couldn’t escape prejudice. His mom discovered a job as a pharmacist in Canada, and he and his youthful sister have been left in Jamaica. However the relations who have been blissful sufficient to soak up his sister wouldn’t settle for him. “We didn’t should guess that they have been preserving my sister as a result of she had gentle pores and skin – they really advised us. Our household stated: ‘We’re not taking Ted – he’s too darkish.’”
When his mom may help them, the kids joined her in Canada, after which collectively they took a ship to the UK in 1959. Coming scorching on the heels of the primary Windrush arrivals, his mom, now pregnant with Brown’s youthful half-brother, Bobby, had a single suitcase and two younger kids. But as they regarded for lodging the indicators they noticed stated: “No Blacks, no canines, no Irish”. The household have been pressured to sleep tough for a couple of weeks, earlier than they discovered a room in Brixton, south London, with peeling wallpaper, warmed solely by a small paraffin heater. Later, when Brown was about 12, they moved to Deptford in south-east London, however left for Greenwich after the Nationwide Entrance pushed canine waste by their letterboxes and broke their home windows.
It took a movie, Carmen Jones, to make Brown realise he was homosexual. “There’s a scene the place Harry Belafonte performs Joe, and he tries to push a Jeep out of this creek. And he’s all muscle tissues. And my little coronary heart was beating.” The fun of this epiphany at 13 was quickly clouded by Brown’s sense of isolation. However he started to suspect that his greatest pal, one other younger Black boy, may really feel the identical method. “We didn’t have intercourse or something. I simply bought a sense. There have been varied issues about our behaviours.” Brown was by no means sure, however the boy’s demise by suicide at age 15 left him distraught. “I sort of understood, as a result of later, partly because of despair about what had occurred to him, I felt very a lot the identical method.”
His pal’s demise drove him to come back out to his mom. “I needed to inform any person. And she or he cried on my shoulder. I cried on her shoulder. She stated: ‘Nicely, you’re going to should take care of the racism, and likewise society’s hostility to homosexuals.’” Brown was initially surprised at his mom receiving the information with nothing however love and concern, however she advised him about listening to the speeches of the homosexual civil rights activist Bayard Rustin, describing the civil rights motion as a coalition that advocated the liberation of gays and girls, too.
Not lengthy afterwards, on 22 November 1965, Brown’s mom died. She was simply 50. She had a concurrent coronary heart and bronchial asthma assault in entrance of Brown and his siblings. “I attempted to provide her mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and ran out to the phone field to name the ambulance, however they didn’t flip up for 20 minutes. By that point she was gone.” He credit her with imbuing him with the spirit of revolutionary love and rejection of bigotry.
As a result of age distinction, Brown and his siblings have been despatched to separate kids’s houses following his mom’s demise, and his isolation deepened. He remembers a college journey to Brighton the place different kids spoke of their ambitions for the long run – the dream job, marriage and children. Ted couldn’t see any of this for himself. “I had no concept what I used to be going to do. I didn’t know every other homosexual individuals.”
When he returned to the kids’s dwelling that day, he determined he would finish his life. However he was saved by the realisation that his youthful brother and sister would have nobody to keep watch over them. “I used to be taking a look at it from the standpoint of once I’m 25, once I’m 30, if I don’t meet anyone, or my youthful brother and sister discover out I’m a gay, I’ll be alone.”
Then, at 19, he skilled a watershed second. It was 1969 and he nonetheless knew nobody who was overtly homosexual, however he got here throughout a information report on the Stonewall riots. The report defined how “some queens with purses have been preventing with the police at a bar in New York,” he says. To Brown simply listening to about different homosexual males taking motion collectively was unbelievable. “I keep in mind doing cartwheels throughout the lounge.”
The subsequent yr, in November, he went to look at the landmark homosexual movie Boys within the Band. Outdoors, members of the GLF have been leafleting. Brown went alongside to the group’s third assembly, on the LSE, and remembers how thrilling it felt. “I’d by no means been in a room with different homosexuals who have been offended about the way in which that we have been being handled, and eager to battle again about it,” he says.
Discovering the GLF allowed him to see a future for himself for the primary time, whereas activist areas gave him a transparent goal, friendships and lovers. After his early years within the GLF, Brown arrange his personal organising collectives. He led the Black part of Galop, the Homosexual London Police Monitoring Group, arrange in June 1982 to deal with homophobic policing, however left after a livid confrontation with a white homosexual man within the organisation who used a racial slur and advised a joke about how white women solely went out with Black boys “to get their purses again”. Brown went to work for Lewisham Motion on Policing, arrange following the New Cross fireplace in January 1981.
Brown additionally based Black Lesbians and Gays In opposition to Media Homophobia, and in 1990 started a year-long wrestle towards Black British tabloid the Voice, to drive an apology for its homophobic protection of the footballer Justin Fashanu. On 29 October 1991 the paper printed a full-page “proper to answer” – an article by Brown entitled: “Combating racism and homophobia – a united battle”.
The group additionally campaigned to take away “homicide music” by dancehall artists reminiscent of Buju Banton from BBC radio and different audio retailers. After Brown appeared on youth programme The Phrase to protest towards Banton in 1992, a gaggle of followers got here to his dwelling in Brixton, confronted him for trashing Banton, and beat him unconscious. When the police visited him in hospital the following morning, they appeared so bored with taking the matter additional that his companion, Noel, had to offer them with a notepad and pen, Brown says. Brown complained in regards to the police’s nonchalance, “nevertheless it was a useless finish, actually”. Regardless of this violent backlash, Brown is adamant that Black communities are not any extra homophobic than white ones, pointing to the “Brixton fairies” group that squatted on the Railton and Mayall roads in Brixton within the 70s.
Securing extra constructive protection for LGBT individuals and preventing towards the media’s homophobia are Brown’s proudest achievements. He vividly remembers as a 12-year-old studying an article headlined: “Learn how to spot a potential homo”, however at the moment “people who find themselves homophobic are not within the place of having the ability to get away with it unchallenged, which was the state of affairs which existed proper up till 1969. They may say and do no matter they wished to LGBT individuals and never face any problem. We now function in tv, radio and media far more considerably.” Now his anger is concentrated on the hostile media atmosphere for trans individuals, describing it as an identical to the degrading and merciless remedy of homosexual individuals in his youth.
He has not attended Satisfaction for years, believing it has misplaced its political edge. “It’s being sponsored by manufacturers like Coca-Cola, and a few army and police organisations, that are fully contradictory to Satisfaction’s authentic goals.” He notes how Satisfaction in London has rejected issues about Metropolitan police involvement within the parade, one thing he believes ignores the historical past of police brutality and entrapment the homosexual neighborhood has confronted, and which he joined Galop to deal with. When lockdown suspended 2020’s celebrations, Brown and his outdated GLF comrades organised their very own march alongside Haymarket and Regent Avenue on 28 June, which met the Black Trans Lives Matter march. For Ted Brown, it was like being again in 1972 once more.
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